Tag: Plutarch

Harvard Classics

July 13 – Plutarch: Pericles

Athenians Also Complained of Taxes
Pericles used public money to beautify Athens. The citizens protested against the expense, as citizens in all ages do. By a clever stroke Pericles won their support to his ambitious plans.
Read from Plutarch‘s PERICLES Vol. 12, pp. 4757

Different popular and aristocratical tendencies // two parties of people and the few

Pericles made his policy subservient to the [people’s] pleasure – creating events to please the people // coaxing his countrymen like children

Learn to pronounce
(especially of an event taking place in public) distasteful; unpleasant.
“the unedifying sight of the two leaders screeching conflicting proposals”

People claiming Athens had lost its reputation and was ill-spoken abroad

Use of excess money to build things for “eternal honor” // put the whole city into “state pay” or public salaries

Building projects designed to provide employment

Agatharchus or Agatharch was a self-taught painter from Samos, who lived in the 5th century BC. His father was named Eudemos. He is said by Vitruvius to have invented scenic painting, and to have painted a scene for a tragedy which Aeschylus exhibited.

Phidias or Pheidias was a Greek sculptor, painter, and architect. His Statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Callicrates or Kallikrates was an ancient Greek architect active in the middle of the fifth century BC. He and Ictinus were architects of the Parthenon. An inscription identifies him as the architect of “the Temple of Nike” in the Sanctuary of Athena Nike on the Acropolis.

Orators complaining Pericles squandered public money but once Pericles suggested he only receive credit the people asked him to continue spending

Harvard Classics

July 2 – Plutarch: Caesar

2 “Julius” Becomes “July”
So that the date for certain festivals would not fall one year in midwinter and in the heat of summer another year, Cæsar reformed the calendar. July was named for him.
Read from Plutarch‘s CÆSAR Vol. 12, pp. 310315

Plutarch – Plutarch was a Greek Middle Platonist philosopher, historian, biographer, essayist, and priest at the Temple of Apollo. He is known primarily for his Parallel Lives, a series of biographies of illustrious Greeks and Romans, and Moralia, a collection of essays and speeches.

In the hope that the government of a single person would give them time (the citizens) to breather after so many civil wars and calamities, made him (Caesar) dictator for life.

Affections of the people to be the best and surest guard (against death) // promised consulships, provided feasts, public entertainment

Past honor a motivation to continue with ideas of greater action

Parthians – The Parthian Empire, also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran from 247 BC to 224 AD.

Hyrcania – a historical region composed of the land south-east of the Caspian Sea in modern-day Iran and Turkmenistan, bound in the south by the Alborz mountain range and the Kopet Dag in the east.

Pontus – a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.

Calendar adjustment to account for the “irregularity of time” // Romans wanted to make revolutions of their months to fall within the course of their year

Intercalary month – Mercedonius // was the intercalary month of the Roman calendar. The resulting leap year was either 377 or 378 days long. It theoretically occurred every two (or occasionally three) years, but was sometimes avoided or employed by the Roman pontiffs for political reasons regardless of the state of the solar year. Mercedonius was eliminated by Julius Caesar when he introduced the Julian calendar in 46 BC.

JULY: This month used to be called Quintilis – the Roman word for “fifth” as it was the fifth month of the Roman year. It was later changed to July by the ruler of Roman world, Julius Caesar, after his family name (Julius).