1 Darwin Not First Evolutionist
While Darwin was working on his theory of evolution, another scientist independently arrived at the same conclusions. Darwin, then, was not the first to study evolution.
(Darwin publishes outline of “Origin of Species” July 1, 1858.)
Read from Darwin‘s ORIGIN OF SPECIES Vol. 11, pp. 517

Lamarck (Jean-Baptiste)Philosophie Zoologique
Hist. Nat. des Animaux sans Vertebres
Geoffroy Saint-HilaireLife
Patrick MatthewNaval Timber and Arboriculture
Robert ChambersVestiges of Creation
Richard OwenThe Nature of Limbs
Baden PowellPhilosophy of Creation

Prior belief species were immutable

Lamarck observed difficulty in distinguishing species and varieties // perfect gradation of forms in certain groups. Attributed to direct action of life conditions

Geoffroy – condition of life or “monde ambiant” // belief that species stopped evolving

Professor Grant (1826) Edinburgh Philosophical Journal vol. xiv. p. 283